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However, recent archaeological evidence indicates that opposition to such a passage would be understandable during the Iron II period.
Thus, the narratives relative to the Exodus best fit the settlement history of the area during the Iron II rather than the previous two archaeological periods.
I WAS THUS FORCED TO QUESTION THE TRADITIONALLY HELD OPINION THAT THE MOSES-LED GROUP, ON ITS WAY FROM EGYPT TO THE LAND OF CANAAN, PASSED THROUGH/AROUND EDOM (AND MOAB) DURING THE LATE BRONZE-IRON I PERIODS.
On the basis of recent archaeological work, I concluded that a Moses-led group would have encountered little, if any, opposition if it had passed through the territories in question during the periods traditionally associated with this event.
Thus, the assumption here is that although the biblical writer may have used material that predates his time, he set that material into a context, namely, the Iron II AND LATER PERIODS, that would be meaningful to his readers." If Finkelstein and Mac Donald are right, and I believe they are, then this means that those scholars who are seeking to establish the "route" of the Exodus from its itinerary preserved in Numbers 33:1-50 have a daunting task before them. Anyone seeking to find sites in existence before the 7th-6th centuries B. for their Exodus will hit a brick wall: the fact that _no_ archaeological time period has _all_ the sites in existence and occupied.
Moses' activities and speeches are presented in the third person, a format which would _not_ have been used by Moses had he really written the account appearing in the Holy Bible. Ge ) and they are feared by Israel upon her departure from Egypt (Ex ). Certain locations mentioned in the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, which also include the Exodus account, have been identified by archaeologists and excavated; the excavations revealed that these sites either were not in existence in Moses' days, or if they were in existence, they were abandoned and not occupied _contra_ the biblical portrayal of events. Had Moses (or some other eye-witness) written the Exodus account the number of letters used for writing would be 30 in 1552/1446 B. If some of the sites mentioned in the Pentateuch and Exodus narratives were not in existence or deserted in Moses' time (1512/1446 B. so there would be no need for the Exodus to avoid the way to the land of the Philistines.
Obviously someone else is writing about Moses and describing his activities (Cf. The Philistines are portrayed as being in Canaan in the days of Abraham (circa 2100 B. Archaeology has established that the Philistines are the Pelest of Ramesside era records and they did not settle in Canaan until circa 1175 B. Thus the Exodus account is _in error_ in having Philistines present circa 1512 B. The archaeological excavations revealed that some of the sites were in existence only in the 7th century B. so this anomaly suggests the Exodus account is no earlier. C.) "how" can one identify the route of the Exodus from the itinerary given in Numbers 33:1-50? That is to say, if there was an Exodus circa 1512/1446/1260 B. they probably did take "the way to the land of the Philistines" as the Philistines were not present to oppose them.
With this archaeological and topographical information about Hebua in mind, the meaning of Exodus is now clear.
The way to the coastal highway had an insurmountable barrier, the fortress Tjaru..."I understand that the Bible's "internal chronology" suggests the Exodus was the Hyksos expulsion of circa 1540 B. They most likely fled along "the way of Horus" (biblical "way to the land of the Philistines") to Sharuhen near Gaza, the Egyptian army later pursued and defeated them at this location (Tell el Ajjul).
If I am correct in believing that there was an historical Moses who was a product of the royal nursery, then he would have been trained in the Egyptian scribal tradition. Redford thinks these events derived from the Hyksos experience in Egypt -their migration, period of dominance, followed by their forced exodus. crops up which aligns with the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose I who expelled the Hyksos:"However, as Jack showed, if all the periods are added together, such as the forty years in Sinai, the lengths of the judges, and periods of peace between the judges, plus the length of David's reign, the total is 534 years. Egyptian priest and historian Manetho claimed Israel was expelled by a pharaoh called Rameses and his notion aligns somewhat with the Ramesside Iron Age I archaeological evidence found in Transjordan and Canaan.